Remembering the importance of lifestyle choices

There has been a flurry of journal publication lately focusing on methods that can help stave off cognitive impairment and dementia. According to the most recent study, published in this month’s British Medical Journal, making dietary and lifestyle changes that ultimately reduce the risk of developing diabetes and depression, could have a significant impact on an individual’s future risk of developing dementia (Ritchie et al, 2010). The study, led by French researcher Dr Karen Ritchie, of the French National Institute of Medical research, analysed the lifestyle and health of 1,433 people over the age of 65 living in the south of France over a period of seven years. Whilst there is an element of genetic risk associated with the development of dementias such as Alzheimer’s disease, the role of diet and lifestyle are long known to be of significance, and that risk can be manipulated through specific changes. Dr Ritchie was quoted as saying “health chiefs should focus on encouraging literacy, prompt treatment of depressive symptoms and early screening for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance”. The study also highlighted the importance of consuming plenty of fruit and vegetables associated with a more ‘Mediterranean’ style of eating, which would also involve the consumption of foods such as seafood which is rich in neuroprotective omega-3s. In regards to the protective role that long term education has on brain health, this recent publication supports the findings of a study published in last months journal Brain. This study involved examining the brains of 872 participants in ECLIPSE (Epidemiological Clinicopathalogical Studies in Europe), a collaboration between three large population-based studies of ageing, in which a positive association was found between education and a reduced risk of developing dementia symptoms (Brayne et al, 2010). What was particularly interesting about this study was that education had no protection on dementia itself, but only on the symptoms. When the brains of individuals were examined, those individuals who had stayed in education still, showed the pathological and molecular signs of dementia, although whilst living, those individuals showed no physical symptoms of dementia. This would suggest that education in early life appears to enable some people to cope with a lot of changes in their brain before showing dementia symptoms.

So what do we learn from this? It seems that the same messages re-emerge over and over. That exercise, education and adoption of a ‘healthy’ diet offer protection against a myriad of diseases and conditions that are often considered to be just a part of growing old. However whilst it appears that we have a lot more say in our long term fate, putting into practice the advice offered by scientist may take both time and dedication as many of us are very settled in our ways. Educating people is the first step in initiating long term lifestyle changes.

Ritchie K et al. (2010) Designing prevention programmes to reduce incidence of dementia: prospective cohort study of modifiable risk factors. BMJ August 2010

Brayne C et al. (2010) Education, the brain and dementia: neuroprotection or compensation? Brain 133:2210-2216

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