Man’s best friend and more?

Last week saw a rather unusual story in the headlines in which a jack Russell took it upon itself to remove an infected toe from his sleeping owner. Jerry Douthett, a 48-year-old musician from Rockford, USA, had been out drinking, and on returning home had fallen into a deeper than usual sleep. He awoke, some hours later, to find the sheets of his bed blood soaked, and on further investigation, found the big toe that had been infected for several weeks, but for which he had not sought medical attention, had disappeared. It turned out that Kiko, the family dog, had detected the infection and chewed the toe to the point that is was completely removed. Whilst the story had a an edge of humour to it, it came to light that Mr Douthett had in fact been suffering from type II diabetes, a condition he was unaware of, but for which he is now is being treated. Some of the long term damaging effects of diabetes are to the blood vessels and nerves that supply the limbs. Neuropathy is the direct damage of nerves and results in gradual loss of sensation and, if the skin is damaged, can result in infection, as experienced first hand by Mr Douthett. Unfortunately, many people have type II diabetes for years without knowing it, simply because any early symptoms can be vague and may not cause undue concern, or seem important at the time. Symptoms, amongst others include feeling thirsty all the time, frequent urination, unexplained tiredness and unexplained weight loss, muscle wasting and frequent infections, or slow-healing sores. It is important, therefore, to be aware of these symptoms and visit your GP if you have any concerns. Catching diabetes early is a key factor to managing the condition successfully. In Mr Douthett’s case he had his dog’s ability to smell his infection to thank, as it has enabled him to now regulate his glucose levels and hopefully avoid any further losses!

A dogs’ ability to detect infection is not surprising, given their acute sense of smell, believed to be around 100,000 times more acute than that of humans. The distinct olfactory gift that is associated with the canine species has, in fact, led scientists to conduct small-scale studies of dogs’ ability to detect the chemical markers of cancer, specifically melanoma, with extremely promising results. Much of the research in this area is based on the theory that a disease causes subtle chemical changes in the body, or alterations in metabolism, which in turn releases a different smell or chemical marker to which dogs can be trained to recognise. Whilst the concept that dogs may be used as a cancer diagnostic tool is doubtful, their use in heath care is certainly of significance. Indeed, their use as guide dogs and hearing dogs is now advancing to their use to warn their owners of epileptic seizures, low blood sugar and heart attacks to name but a few. So they really are man’s best friend!

Peripheral Neuropathy in Diabetics; what steps can we take to avoid it?

You might already be aware that of the many deteriorative conditions related to diabetes; ‘peripheral neuropathy’ is perhaps the most common, with an estimated 60-70% of diabetics reportedly experiencing symptoms. ‘Neuropathy’ describes damage, whether moderate or severe, to the peripheral nervous system (the ‘external’ portion of the nervous system, situated beyond the brain and spinal cord), which transmits information directly from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body.

Our nervous system acts very similarly to an electrical cable; with the nerve’s ‘impulse’ adopting the role of the electrical wire itself, and the ‘myelin sheath’ (the ‘skin’ of the nerve), mimicking the insulation surrounding the wire. If the wire becomes damaged, then the nerve signal will not travel efficiently along the wire, nor will it transmit the intended messages as instantaneously. This delay results inevitably in the ‘classic’ symptoms of neuropathy; namely; tingling, numbness, ‘burning’ and pain.

A causative link has been drawn between neuropathy and deficiencies of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids within the body. Indeed, insulin itself plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of EFAs (essential fatty acids), by alerting the genes necessary for enzyme-conversion to begin the process of converting short-chain fatty acids into a bio-available (i.e. usable by the body) long-chain fatty acid.

Where insulin is absent, or enzyme-activity impeded, the enzymes needed to create specific fatty acids cannot be produced and a deficiency results. Of the myelin layer which protects our vulnerable nerves, an estimated 75 % is composed exclusively of EFA’s (these are termed ‘essential’ because the body cannot generate them independently, but must instead source them externally from the diet). Depletion of this fatty, insulatory layer, leads to severe nerve damage (Neuropathy).

Nutrition, as all Diabetics are painfully aware, is central to the manufacture of insulin and for creating the right ‘biological environment’ to encourage enzyme conversions to take place. By boosting or supplementing our dietary levels of long-chain fatty acids we can essentially sidestep the risk that the enzyme-mediated conversions will fail to progress past the initial hurdle.

Fatty acid supplementation nourishes the myelin sheath, and prevents further degeneration of inter-cellular communication; it reduces the risk of developing Neuropathy, and actually reinvigorates nerve endings to overcome numbness and the likelihood of eventual tissue loss. However, EPA, a specific omega-3 fatty acid found in fish oil that appears to have significant beneficial effects on diabetic neuropathy and serum lipids as well as other diabetic complications such as nephropathy (kidney damage) and macroangiopathy (damage to the blood vessels). EPA plays a role in the compaction, stabilization, and maintenance of myelin sheaths by regulating the production of proteolipid protein or PLP. PLP is literally the ‘glue’ that hold in place the sheets of protective fats that cover the nerve axon. Loss of PLP is associated with many conditions that have nerve damage including Multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington chorea.

OmegaForce is a patented formulation of omega-3 and 6 long-chain fatty acids with a multitude of health-enhancing properties, including anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving actions. For more information on the relationship between EPA deficiency and the pathogenesis of Diabetic Neuropathy, please go to www.igennus.com